Learning approach is based on a distinction between a pedagogical, an androgogical and anthropogogical form of teaching.
The three approaches of teaching can be distinguished by their different perceptions of the relations between subject matter, teacher and student.
The pedagogical approach is based on L. Wittgenstein's idea that the teacher is the expert within a language game and that teaching is to be seen as the teacher's communication of expert knowledge to the student. Learning is the student's acquisition of this knowledge. Prior to the classroom teaching, the teacher defines clear learning objectives and chooses the subject matter that is to be worked with in the classroom. The subject matter is selected so that it distributes the quantity of information that the teacher believes is relevant to the student in relation to the given topic. The teacher and the subject are in the center and not the student.
After teaching, the teacher will be able to compare the student's learning outcomes with the learning objectives that the teacher defined before the teaching begun. The student's learning outcome can be tested through closed tasks and tests.
The androgogical approach of teaching is based on J. Dewey's idea that student has an inherent basis of knowledge that can be developed through interaction with the outside world and solving problems. Learning is seen as the student's development of this inherent basis of knowledge. The teacher chooses a subject matter, which could make it possible for the student to experience what is relevant and to define and solve authentic problems. In the learning situation, the student chooses to work with the parts of the subject matter that he or she finds relevant and then uses this part of the subject matter as a basis for solving problem. The student's learning outcome can be tested through case assignments and simulations, where the student can show that he or she can use gained experience within different context.
Nir Golan, an educational and leadership expert, suggests combining the terms Pedagogy (child learning) and Androgogy (male / adult learning), into one term, Anthropogogy: to mean human learning. The Anthropogogy model assumes that the distinction between children and adults is no longer relevant in the digital age and that each student should be treated as a 'whole' person irrespective of their age.
According to Golan, Anthropogogy has four basic principles:
1. The independent learner: the perception of oneself as an independent entity. A person sees him/herself as someone who is self-directed; choosing what to learn, how much and how to learn it. Digital learners (DL) prefer to access information quickly from multiple-media source: prefer processing pictures, sounds, colors and video before text.
2. Adapting learning to that person's needs: the person is ready to learn when he/she needs that specific learning process, and it is incorporated into daily tasks and social functioning. He/she sees that the learning process serves his/her personal development. DLs prefer parallel processing and multitasking and to learn "just in time".
3. Renovating learning: In the digital age where there is widespread availability of network information, learning should give news and added value to the learner. DLs prefer to network simultaneously with others and random access to hyper-linked multimedia information
4. Immediate and practical learning: The main motive for human learning is for problem solving. The learner has a need for the immediate application of the learned material, so learning has to be more focused in giving solutions to the particular problem. Learning which cannot be implemented immediately is perceived as a waste of time. DLs prefer instant gratification and immediate rewards.
The significant learning model provides tools for the teacher to assimilate the Anthropogogy approach in six steps, throughout which the teacher uses dialogue in order to guide the learner.
The six steps are:
1. Action- needs identification and learner performance
2. Behavior- conceptualization of the action
3. Norm- transformation of the behavior to a norm
4. Value- defining the value in the behavior
5. Identity redefined- redefinition of my unique identity
6. Teaching- Using the Anthropogogy model to teach the other
The anthropogogical approach of teaching is based on K. E. Løgstrup's idea that knowledge is created thought an equal exchange of many different individual's perception of the world. The Danish theologian-philosopher K. E. Løgstrup is second in reputation in his homeland only to Søren Kierkegaard. K. E. Løgstrup presents his theory of using phenomenology in understanding our ethical decisions. According to Løgstrup, phenomenology not only provides an understanding of human existence but also of ethics, through examination of the phenomena of ethical concepts. Learning is the student's participation in this exchange. The teacher and student jointly select the subject matter that is to be worked with in the classroom, according to the student's needs. They are equal in this process, just as they are in their efforts to the stages of the anthropological significant learning model, and produce common knowledge within the field. The learning outcome can be measured within the model itself: there are significant student's behaviors related to each stage.
Details of the six stages of the Anthropogogy significant learning model:
1. Action- carrying out an action for the first time in response to an internal or external need. The teacher identifies and reflects the need of the learner: leading him/her to do what they did not do previously. The learner performs the action for the first time together with coaching from a professional person. The learner then experiences the consequences of his/her action and evaluates his/her response.
• The result of Step 1: Recognizing by the learner his/her need and the actual carrying out of the action for the first time (alongside reflection).
2. Behavior- conceptualization of the action:
The learner repeats the action using clear quality and quantity measurements. The learner then describes the action, helping him/her to improve the repeated action and transfer it into standard behavior.
•The result of Step 2: Conceptualizing behavior and standardizing it according to the expectations.
3. Norm- transformation of the behavior into the norm:
Norm is defined as "a standard of achievement or behavior that is required, desired or designated as normal". These standards of behavior are "shared by members of a social group to which each member is expected to conform." In this step, the behavior is transformed into norm as an expected behavior.
• The result of Step 3: Understanding by the learner of the benefits of turning the behavior into the norm in order to reinforce the behavior in a social context.
4. Value- defining the value in the behavior:
The meaning of the behavior is defined to the learner as well as the benefits that may be gained from the norm to the learner and to his/her surroundings. The value then becomes the guiding principle to making future decisions connected to the behavior; helping decide when and how to use this behavior. In this manner, the behavior becomes more significant.
• The result of Step 4: Defining the value of the behavior by making it significant.
5. Redefinition of my unique identity- self-identity redefined
The values are acknowledged by the learner and assist in redefining his/her unique identity. The learner knows how to describe their newly unique identity and explain what their unique contribution is to those around them. Although the learning process affected one behavior, it helped to redefine his/her whole identity to him/herself.
• The result of Step 5: Reformulating a unique identity by the learner.
6. Teaching- Using the Anthropogogy model to teach the other.
The learner becomes the teacher ("Melamed"). The learner uses his/her personal experience as a role model and teaches the other using his/her own unique identity. He/ She applies the Anthropogogy model to lead a new learner to significant learning.
• The result of Step 6: Continuity of the learning process according to the Anthropogogy model to achieve significant learning for the learner and for the teacher.
When anthropogogical learners discover something they like, they are excited to share it with their friends using digital devices and social media tools. This is how they want their educational experience to be. Anthropogogical learners want to learn collaboratively and to apply what they have learned through creative path-way. They prefer learning on their own time and on their own terms and want to be involved in real-life issues that matter to them.